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The Story of Our Planet

As far as we know, around 4,500 million years ago

as far as - насколько, поскольку

this rock that we live on coalesced from the dust and debris left over from the formation of our sun.

rock - камень, скала
to coalesce - объединяться, соединяться, срастаться
dust - пыль, прах
debris - мусор, обломки, осколки
formation - образование, формарование

Without airplanes, pizza delivery, or the Internet,

delivery - доставка, поставка, передача

things moved more slowly across the early earth than they do today.

across - через, поперек

For example, from isolated puddles of water,

isolated - изолированный, отдельный
puddle - лужа, лужица

the oceans formed over the course of 400 to 800 million years.

ocean - океан
to form - формировать, образовывать
over the course of - в течение

That's how long it would take for your hair to grow around the earth - twice.

long - долго
hair - волосы
to grow - расти, выращивать, увеличиваться
twice - дважды

In that same time, bacterial life did spread across the watery globe.

to spread - распространять(ся)
watery - водянистый, водяной, жидкий
globe - глобус, земной шар

Higher plants and animals, on the other hand, took much longer to develop and disperse.

plant - растение
on the other hand - с другой стороны
to develop - разрабатывать(ся), развивать
to disperse - разогнать, рассеять, расходиться, рассеивать

But we're going to skip those 3 billion years

to skip - пропускать

(during which your hair would have grown to the moon)

moon - луна

and talk about us, Homo sapiens.

We were much faster than our own hair,

which would have grown a meager 27km

meager - скудный, мизерный, бедный, тощий, худой

in the 180,000 years we took to cross Africa and reach all the unfrozen continents.

to reach - достигать, доходить
unfrozen - незамерзающий

In many of these places we were able to develop useful practices like agriculture,

to be able to - быть способным что то сделать
useful - полезный
agriculture - сельское хозяйство, агрокультура

but because we were scattered across the globe,

to scatter - рассеять, разбрасывать, раскидывать

the best ideas and tastiest regional foods

tastiest - вкуснейший, вкусный, лакомый
regional - региональный, областной, районный

could only gain ground through trade or human migration.

to gain - получить, набирать
trade - сделка, торговля
migration - миграция, перемещение

Wheat, for example, was domesticated around 8500BC to make porridge.

wheat - пшеница
to domesticate - одомашнить, приручать, осваивать, цивилизовать, культивировать
porridge - каша, овсяная каша

Actually, some speculate it might have been for beer,

speculate - спекулировать, размышлять
beer - пиво

but either way wheat made it from the Fertile Crescent to both the Atlantic and the Pacific by roughly 2500BC.

roughly - грубо, приблизительно

6000km in 6000 years might seem like a blistering pace,

to seem - казаться, представляться
blistering - стремительный
pace - темп, скорость, шаг

but just wait for the Middle Ages!

middle age - средневековье

The bubonic plague and the printing press each spread across Europe in less than a hundred years,

plague - чума, бедствие, мор, бич

bringing death and literacy to the populace before their hair could have even grown 15 meters.

death - смерть, гибель
literacy - грамотность
populace - чернь, население, простой народ

In the 20th century,

mania for both the Beatles and the Hula hoop raced around the world in a year or two.

mania - мания
to race - участвовать в гонке, мчаться

Now even a year is a long time.

With millions of people jet-setting across the globe every day,

jet-setting - характеристика или обозначение богатого и модного человека, который часто и часто путешествует ради удовольствия

diseases such as SARS can vacation almost anywhere within a few short weeks.

disease - болезнь, заболевание, недуг
a few - немного, несколько (few - мало)

And the 0s and 1s that make up this video take,

on average, less than a tenth of a second to get to you

average - средний
tenth - десятая часть

that's about half a nanometer, or two atoms, of hair growth.

atom - атом, мельчайшая частица

In short - the pace of travel on earth has really sped up!

in short - короче говоря, словом, в кратце
to speed up - ускорять, убыстрять

But how do we know this stuff?

How do we know what happened on earth before the records of written history?

record - запись, отчет
written - написанный, писанный
history - история, прошлое, историческая наука

Why do we think the earth is 4,500,000,000 years old?

And what on earth is going to happen in the next 45 years?

Welcome to the story of what we know about the earth and how we know that we know it.

This is MinuteEarth.